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The laboratory is home to several of the world's top supercomputers including the world's fifth most powerful supercomputer ranked by the TOP500, Titan, and is a leading neutron science and nuclear energy research facility that includes the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor.ORNL hosts the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the Bio Energy Science Center, There are five campuses on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge reservation; the National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant), the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, and the developing Oak Ridge Science and Technology Park, although the four other facilities are unrelated to the National Laboratory.In 1981 the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, a 25 MV particle accelerator, was opened at ORNL.At the time, Holifield had the widest range of ion species and was twice as powerful as other accelerators attracting hundreds of guest researchers each year.In the late 1960s cuts in funding led to plans for another particle accelerator to be cancelled and the United States Atomic Energy Commission cut the breeder reactor program by two-thirds leading to a downsizing in staff from 5000 to 3800.In the 1970s the prospect of fusion power was strongly considered sparking research at ORNL.A tokamak called ORMAK, made operational in 1971, was the first tokamak to achieve a plasma temperature of 20 million Kelvin.The US Atomic Energy Commission required improved safety standards in the early 1970s for nuclear reactors so ORNL staff wrote almost 100 requirements covering many factors including fuel transport and earthquake resistance.

The project called Water for Peace was backed by John F. Johnson and presented at a 1964 United Nations conference but increases in the cost of construction and public confidence in nuclear power falling caused the plan to fail.The site was chosen for the X-10 Graphite Reactor, used to show that plutonium can be created from enriched uranium.Enrico Fermi and his colleagues developed the world's second self-sustaining nuclear reactor after Fermi's previous experiment, the Chicago Pile-1.Much of the research performed at ORNL in the 1950s was relating to nuclear reactors as a form of energy production both for propulsion and electricity; more reactors were built in the 1950s than the rest of the ORNL's history combined.Another project was the world's first light water reactor.During the war, advanced research for the government was managed at the site by the University of Chicago.In 1943, construction of the "Clinton Laboratories" was completed, later renamed to "Oak Ridge National Laboratory".The Department of Energy was concerned with the pollution surrounding ORNL and it began clean-up efforts.Burial trenches and leaking pipes had contaminated the groundwater beneath the lab and radiation tanks were sitting idle, full of waste.In 1977 construction began for 6 metre (20 foot) superconducting electromagnets intended to control fusion reactions.The project was an international effort, three electromagnets were produced in the US, one in Japan, one in Switzerland and the final by remaining European states and experimentation continued into the 1980s.


  1. How radiometric dating works in general Radioactive elements decay gradually into other elements. The original element is called the parent, and the.

  2. Ford to pick up repair cost for Explorers with carbon monoxide problems. Posted October 16, 2017 Updated October 17, 2017

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, a limited liability partnership between the University of Tennessee and the Battelle Memorial.

  4. Compound Forms/Forme composte dating date Inglese Italiano carbon dating, carbon-14 dating, radiocarbon dating n noun Refers to person, place, thing.

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