In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.
The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.
The following provision of Indian constitution makes it unitary Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union.
Besides, the Constitution of the Union and the States is a single framework from which neither can get out and within which they must function.
In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.
In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.
It can declare a law as unconstitutional, if it contravenes any provision of the Constitution.
And both the union government and the central government derive their powers from the constitution.: The constitution of India is a rigid constitution and this is one of the basic features of federal constitution.The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).After this procedure the amendment is signed by the head of the state i.e; the President.Since in India important amendments can be amended through this procedure Hence, Indian Constitution has been rightly called a rigid constitution. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national importance such as Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, etc.But for the very clear picture of this conclusion first of all we have to know that what is the federal constitution and what is unitary constitution.What feature of Indian constitution makes it federal or what features makes it unitary.However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States.They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.