Indeed, Jung was a proponent of the "word association" test as a measure of the unconscious dispositions influencing behavior.
This approach uses "open-ended" responses that need to be interpreted in the context of the "whole" person, and not according to the preconceived theory of the test constructers.
Although popular in the business sector, the MBTI exhibits significant psychometric deficiencies, notably including poor validity (i.e.
not measuring what it purports to measure) and poor reliability (giving different results for the same person on different occasions).
who had speculated that humans experience the world using four principal psychological functions – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time.
However, neither Myers nor Briggs was formally educated in the discipline of psychology, and both were self-taught in the field of psychometric testing. Hay, who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and who went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the United States.
From Hay, Myers learned rudimentary test construction, scoring, validation, and statistical methods.
While the Jungian model offers empirical evidence for the first three dichotomies, whether the Briggs had evidence for the J-P preference is unclear.
The MBTI takes what is called a "structured" approach to personality assessment.